base supply for fluid mechanics experimental units
modern digital learning environment through hardware/software integration (HSI)
screen mirroring on Internet-enabled devices
extensive selection of accessories enables a complete course in the fundamentals of fluid mechanics
Visualisation of pipe flow
To visualise laminar and turbulent flow, the Osborne Reynolds experiment is used. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow can be observed above a limiting velocity.
In the HM 250.01 unit, the streamlines at different flows are represented in colour using ink as a contrast medium.
Measurement of flow profile
The HM 250.02 is used to investigate the flow profile. Differences in the flow formation can thus be detected by the use of measurement technique.
Visualisation of streamlines
The laminar, two-dimensional flow in the HM 250.03 flow channel represents a good approximation to the flow of ideal fluids: the potential flow. Fine gas bubbles are ideal for visualising streamlines. Due to their small size, they are particularly well carried along the flow.
In the continuity equation, the relationship between the cross-sectional flow area and the flow velocity is analysed. These physical laws are the foundation of fluid mechanics.
HM 250.04 consists of a transparent pipe section with a change in cross-sectional area. To measure the flow velocities in the two different pipe cross-sections, the pipe section contains two impellers with the same pitch.
Measurement of jet forces
Every change in the velocity of a fluid by deflection, deceleration or acceleration is related to a change in momentum. The change in momentum simultaneously causes a force effect. In practice, this is used, for example, to drive a Pelton turbine.
HM 250.05 contains two interchangeable nozzles, for generating a water jet which hits a deflector. Four different deflectors are available. The water jet generates jet forces at the deflectors, which are measured by a bending beam. A transparent splash guard ensures a clear view of the experiments
For horizontal discharge from a tank, the shape of the outlet and the outlet velocity affect the trajectory of the water jet. In hydrodynamics the interaction between the trajectory, the shape of the outlet and the outlet velocity during discharge from tanks are described and are essential, for example, in hydraulic engineering for the design of dams.
HM 250.06 includes a transparent tank with a horizontal outlet in which various inserts can be installed. The resulting trajectory of the water jet is digitally recorded in the following transparent experimental section. A depth slide gauge is used to measure the trajectory of the water jet in 8 predefined positions.
The HM 250.07 accessory is used to investigate the relationship between the flow velocity of a fluid and the different pressures in a Venturi nozzle. If the flow velocity of a fluid increases, e.g. when passing through a nozzle, the static pressure will drop. If the velocity decreases, the static pressure increases. The total pressure remains constant during the velocity change.
Losses in pipe elements
Pressure losses in pipe sections can have various causes, such as acceleration, deceleration, deflection or friction. Pressure loss is often caused by a combination of several factors. This must be taken into account when designing piping systems.
The HM 250.08 unit is used to investigate pressure losses in various pipe sections and pipe elements. The experimental unit contains seven different pipe sections chosen for their didactic qualities (e.g. straight pipe, pipe with needle valve or pipe with S-bend). Each pipe section can be shut off separately by a ball valve.
Fundamentals of pipe friction
Due to internal friction, differences in velocity occur in the flow of fluids. Energy is needed in the form of pressure to overcome these differences. This results in pressure losses in the pipe flow. The internal friction is the decisive factor determining whether the flow in the pipe is laminar or turbulent. The pipe friction factor, a dimensionless number, is used to calculate pressure losses. The friction factor is determined with the aid of the Reynolds number, which describes the ratio of inertial forces to friction forces. The two numbers are related to each other and are shown in the Moody chart.
HM 250.09 is used to measure pressure loss and flow rate in various pipe sections. Four pipe sections consist of pipe bundles and two pipe sections of single pipes.
Pressure curve along the inlet section
In pipe flow, the surfaces, the cross-sectional geometries and the geometry of the inlet section influence the internal friction and thus also the flow formation. In HM 250.10 the flow processes in the pipe inlet and in the formed flow are investigated. For this purpose, the experimental unit contains three pipe sections for the general investigation of the pipe flow and one pipe section which serves as a pure inlet section.
The HM 250.11 experimental unit can be used to demonstrate the effect of various obstacles on the energy level in the open-channel flow. Fundamentals required for the design of artificial shipping channels or for the regulation of rivers and barrages can be taught on a very small scale.
The robust laboratory shelf allows you to conveniently store experimental equipment and transport it to another location if required. The shelves are extendible and offer a good overview and quick access.
The laboratory shelf is very stable with a solid rear panel and is made of powder coated metal.
The safety functions guarantee safe transport and safe depositing of the laboratory shelf. Brakes on the castors prevent it from rolling away. Due to the snap-in function of the shelves, only one shelf can be pulled out at a time, so that the shelf always has a firm stand.